This fall, the Eskenazi Museum of Art at Indiana University is partnering
with IU School of Art + Design, Lotus Education and Arts Foundation, IU Textile Artist Association, and IU Arts and Humanities Council to
support an artist residency. Danish textile artist Isabel Berglund, known
for her large-scale knitting events and participatory art projects, comes
to Bloomington September 12–October 5, 2017. This residency offers the
artist the opportunity to immerse herself in the local cityscape and partner with the IU and Bloomington communities to create a social art project. The project, called Home Mask Relations—A Social Art Project, explores themes of togetherness, relationships, and home. Berglund will lead workshops at which participants will knit and crochet pieces representing the floor plans of their homes. She will then assemble the pieces into a finished installation. The project invites people to create together while celebrating diversity within our community.
During the last week of her residency, a sample of Berglund’s finished work will be on view at the 24th Lotus World Music and Arts Festival at the Lotus Arts Village, and at Lotus in the Park. Lotus in the Park (September 30, at Third Street Park) will feature both a workshop with Berglund, and a conversation with the artist hosted by David Brenneman, the Wilma E. Kelley Director of the Eskenazi Museum of Art. The installation will also be on view at the IU First Thursday Festival on October 5 from 5 to 8:00 p.m. on the Fine Arts Plaza near the art museum.
Free artist talks and workshops will be provided at multiple locations, including several opportunities during the 24th Lotus Festival. The
workshops are free and open to the public. Supplies will be provided.
Beginners are welcome.
Events with Isabel Berglund
(All events are free and open to the public)
Thursday, September 21, 6-9 p.m.: Community Knitting Workshop
IU Fine Arts Building, room 230
Monday, September 25, 1-4 p.m.: Community Knitting Workshop
Meadowood Retirement Community
Wednesday, September 27, 6-7 p.m.: Artist Lecture
IU Fine Arts Building, room 015
Friday, September 29, 6-9 p.m.: Workshop, Sample Art Installation, Interactive
Lotus Festival Arts Village, E. 6th St. between Walnut St. and Washington St.
Saturday, September 30, 12:15-1 p.m.: Conversation with the artist,
hosted by Eskenazi Museum of Art Wilma E. Kelley Director David Brenneman
Lotus in the Park, Third Street Park
Saturday, September 30, 2-5 p.m.: Workshop, Sample Art Installation, Interactive
Art Camp at Lotus in the Park, Third Street Park
Thursday, October 5, 5-7:30 p.m.: Workshop, Sample Art Installation, Interactive
IU First Thursday Festival, Showalter Fountain Arts Plaza
The island of New Ireland, part of the contemporary nation of Papua New Guinea, is known for its remarkable and varied funerary art forms. The most famous of these is called Malangan, which is practiced by the peoples of northern New Ireland. These ceremonies free the living from obligations to the deceased and allow the spirit of the deceased to move on to the next life. The term Malangan refers both to the ceremony, performances, and feasts that are held to honor the deceased and the art objects that are created for them.
After a person’s death their matrilineal family line is responsible for sponsoring the Malangan celebrations, though other family members and friends can also contribute and honor the dead. These celebrations include both people from within the community and visitors and friends who have traveled to take part. As these celebrations include feasts, performances, and the ceremonial exchange of goods, they are often spread out over months and years. Given the great expense of such a celebration, it is not unusual for the Malangan to take place months to years after the death of an individual or for one celebration to be used to honor several people. Both receiving a Malangan celebration in one’s honor and sponsoring a celebration for another confers status within the community.
Malangan designs, motifs, and forms are often referred to as having “copyrights.” While this does not line up perfectly with the Western use of the term, it is a relatively good way to understand the rules of use connected with them. Only people who have the “rights” to them can use the designs, motifs, and forms, and these rights are owned by specific families as well as by people who have reached certain important stages in life (such as marriage or the birth of a child).
The peoples of southern New Ireland used chalk figures as a part of their memorial rituals. These figures, made by specialist artists in the center of the island, were created for the deceased’s spirit to enter and as a means of guiding that spirit to the afterlife. Once this purpose had been fulfilled the figure itself was destroyed.
There are two other major funerary art forms from New Ireland, which unlike Malangan are no longer practiced. In central New Ireland the Mandak peoples created memorial figures to embody the spirit of the deceased. These figures would commemorate the life of an individual man and were typically displayed as part of a ceremony for skull burial at the end of a yearlong funeral ritual for an important person.
After the death of a loved one the family of the deceased commissions a sculptor or sculptors to create, over several months, elaborate memorial carvings known as Malangan. In some instances the head of a family may contribute a form or motif to a friend or community leader from another family.
Figures, such as this one, while varying greatly, typically represent an ancestor or mythical entity connected to the single life-giving force. The exact story or explanation of imagery used in a Malangan carving is only understood by the owner of the rights to that Malangan. Even other members of the community would not fully understand a Malangan they did not have the rights to use.
It is believed that during the public display of the figure the ancestor or mythical figure depicted dwells within the form. The final step in the creation of a Malangan figure is the placing of the eyes, which enliven the carving. Once the ceremony is over the figures are destroyed or sold to people outside of the community.
In addition to the carvings utilized as part of the Malangan rituals, dances performed for the public were also extremely important. This mask was worn and danced by men and was created to convey manly beauty. The high crest represents a hairstyle worn by young men of the community during mourning. Additionally, the flaring nostrils and open mouth are common features for the form.
While the hairstyle shown is one worn by young men, the subject the mask depicts is not clearly agreed upon. Early reports suggest that the masks are representations of the dead, ancestors who have returned in order to participate in the Malangan. Many New Irelanders today reject this idea and instead believe the masks to be the representations of living people. It is unclear if this early report was mistaken or if people’s interpretation of the masks have changed over time.
These masks, which typically appear at the end of the Malangan rituals, are danced in pairs or groups. These dance performances are often given and paid for by a friend or by family members of the deceased. Unlike the carvings associated with Malangan that are created uniquely for the individual dance, masks are often rented from the sculptor who created them and can be reused in the future.
After the conversion of the peoples of New Ireland to Christianity the practice of chalk figures came to a quick end. The last figures to be made are thought to have been created around 1910.
Before the early twentieth century when a man or woman from a prosperous family passed away a male relative would travel to obtain a chalk figure. These figures were sometimes commissioned, but sometimes pre-made figures were purchased, always with the sex of the figure matching the sex of the deceased.
Once the male relative returned home the figure would be presented to the local leader who was in charge of such images and placed with other figures in a memorial shrine. This shrine, located within an enclosure, was only to be viewed by men, though women often gathered outside to mourn the deceased.
Visually there are number of connections to the Malangan carvings of northern New Ireland, such as the predominant use of black, white, and red pigments; however, unlike the Malangan memorial carvings, this one would be kept over many years. In fact, whenever a new figure was carved all of the other figures would be brought out and repainted for the occasion.
Perhaps the most striking characteristic of this type of figure is the presence of both male and female genitalia. It is thought that this may be a representation of the importance of both men and women within the community and as part of the reproductive cycle. However, very little firm evidence is known as these figures have not been created or used in several generations. Also, there are only a few known reports that describe their ceremonial context and these are based on very limited information. What is clear is that these figures were created to represent those who were powerful and important within their community.
Curatorial Assistant for the Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas
IU Eskenazi Museum of Art